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Friday, April 6, 2012

12. Women's Role in Society

Obtainable data on healthiness, sustenance, learning, and trade and industry concert indicated with the intention of in the 1980s the standing of women in Bangladesh remained very much substandard to with the intention of of men. Women, in custom and practice, remained subordinate to men in almost all aspects of their lives; greater autonomy was the privilege of the rich or the necessity of the very poor. Most women's lives remained centered on their traditional roles, and they had limited access to markets, productive services, education, health care, and local government. This lack of opportunities contributed to high fertility patterns, which diminished family well-being, contributed to the malnourishment and generally poor health of children, and frustrated educational and other national development goals. In fact, acute poverty at the margin appeared to be hitting hardest at women. As long as women's access to health care, education, and training remained limited, prospects for improved productivity among the female population remained poor. 

About 82 percent of women lived in rural areas in the late 1980s. The majority of rural women, perhaps 70 percent, were in small cultivator, tenant, and landless households; many worked as laborers part time or seasonally, usually in post-harvest activities, and received payment in kind or in meager cash wages. Another 20 percent, mostly in poor landless households, depended on casual labor, gleaning, begging, and other irregular sources of income; typically, their income was essential to household survival. The remaining 10 percent of women were in households mainly in the professional, trading, or large-scale landowning categories, and they usually did not work outside the home. 

The economic contribution of women was substantial but largely unacknowledged. Women in rural areas were responsible for most of the post-harvest work, which was done in the chula, and for keeping livestock, poultry, and small gardens. Women in cities relied on domestic and traditional jobs, but in the 1980s they increasingly worked in manufacturing jobs, especially in the ready-made garment industry (see Ready-made Garments, ch. 3). Those with more education worked in government, health care, and teaching, but their numbers remained very small. Continuing high rates of population growth and the declining availability of work based in the chula meant that more women sought employment outside the home. Accordingly, the female labor force participation rate doubled between 1974 and 1984, when it reached nearly 8 percent. Female wage rates in the 1980s were low, typically ranging between 20 and 30 percent of male wage rates.

11. The Bengali Language

Bengali positions as the fifth the largest part verbal tongue in the human race. It is the inhabitant speech of Bangladesh and states in East India, predominantly, West Bengal. In attendance is a bulky Bengali Diaspora in South East England and North America and a moderately less important integer of Bengali speakers are bring into being in Continental Europe, Middle East, East Asia and Australia.
The Bengali language originated on or after Sanskrit, an Indo European conventional talking of the Indian subcontinent. Parts of Bengali can what's more be traced from Prakrit and Pali in cooperation of which were district and conversational version of Sanskrit. The verbal communication was consequently enrich in the midst of the get higher of Vaishnavism in the 15th century .Vaishnavism was a spiritual pressure group that took position in Central Bengal and led to the inscription of poems in Bengal. 
This phase in some customs is the commencement of the ‘Bengali Renaissance’. During the British rule, Bengali literature expanded in the frontier of writing style inscription with enormous literates such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Madhushudhan Dutt in addition to Nobel Laureate, Rabindranath Tagore. The language owes its glossary and sentence structure to English Orientalists of the 19th century. 
Bengali has quite a lot of dialects and sister languages. 19th century multilingual person, Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, acknowledged four great clusters of dialects: Rahrbhoomi (south bengal), Bangabhoomi (east bengal), Kamarupa (assam) and Verendra (north bengal). Supplementary up-to-the-minute classifications have separated twelve poles dialects and derivatives spoken for the ost part in the Eastern regions of India and Bangladesh. The normal Bengali which is used for the most part in innermost Bengal in the province of Calcutta and the Nadia districts. Kharia Thar, Mal Paharia, Saraki, is derivatives and is the lingua of the tribals of the Indian states of Orissa, Bihar and West Bengal. 
The custom of instruction the Bengali language is that the enlightenment of the vowels is postponed cultivate jam-packed thoughtful of the consonants has been conventional. This is for the reason that a consonant includes a short vowel compulsory to its articulation. Bengali words are not finished up of a amount of letters bunched collectively but of a number of sounds and whereas it is promising for a vowel to be a sound on its own, it is impractical for a consonant to be so. It is the vowel that determines the Soor or expression of the word.
The verbal communication exhibits a attribute that is acknowledged as diglossia in linguistics. This is a circumstance in a scrupulous the social order when a speech has two forms the first of a advanced kudos and the following of a subordinate reputation. While the latter is a conversational language, the previous is used in more recognized contexts such as Government recommendation. 
The representative speech is Bangle, also acknowledged as Bengali. It is the first speech of more than 98 percent of the inhabitants. It is in black and white in its own characters, consequent from that of Sanskrit. Many people in Bangladesh also speak English and Urdu.
Bangle terminology shows many influences. These take account of a strong Islamic influence seen in the compliments of "Salaam aleykum" (Peace be unto you) and "Khoda hafez" (God Bless you) and nouns from the Arab world such as "dokan" (shop), "tarikh"(date), "kolom"(pen) and "bonduk" (gun). In West Bengal the Hindu authority is superior with the bring into amuse yourself of the Hindu greeting "Namashkar".

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

10. Religion in Bangladesh

Every country has its own nation. Bangladesh is culturally standardized, with Bengalis comprising 98% of the population. The majority of Bangladeshis (about 90%) are Muslims, and a small number of HindusChristians and Buddhists are furthermore livelihood in the country. But outstanding to enormous enlightening multiplicity, numerous dialects, hybridization of social personality and norms as well as cultural background, Bangladeshis cannot be stereotyped very without difficulty, not including for the no more than actuality that they are very pliant in natural history. People of diverse religions carry out their religious rituals with celebration in Bangladesh. The Government has declared National Holidays on all significant religious festivals of the four most important religions. Durga Puja, Christmas and Buddha Purnima are distinguished in the midst of passion in Bangladesh. All of these form a fundamental part of the enlightening inheritance of Bangladesh.

Religion                   Percent          
Islam                       89.7%
Hinduism                  9.2%
Buddhism                 0.7%
Christianity               0.3% 
Others                     0.1%                   
                                                                                                                              Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque(built 1706) at Atish Khana, in Old Dhaka, Bangladesh.